Posted in EAPP Articles


Author: Bienvenido Lumbera
Journal of Publication: Kolum Kritika
Given by: Sofia Godes

Rendering a literary work into another language requires more than plain profi-ciency in the original language of the piece. Culture and history are so meshed in language that translation requires the translator to delve into the context that went into the creation of the literary text.

The fact that the foreign text has been the outcome of one man’s efforts at recreating in words an aspect of his interaction with people and events means that the words have undergone transformation from inert material items into living matter expressive of a specific experience.

Words have a history of having been created or invented to designate an object or signify a response. Each time of human use makes the word accrue to itself an added meaning, so that in the course of time, it assumes a meaning that is the sum-total of its history. A creative text is therefore a complex composite of verbalized sense and desirabilities coming not only from the author’s purely personal experience of the world but also from the experience of other persons on whom the words had resonated.

The audience is an all-important factor to consider in translating the dialogues of a foreign play being rendered into the language of the audience. ?e audience is being exposed to a “strange” experience, and this experience needs to be adjusted to the accustomed features of their culture.?The violence to which such requirements impose on the original text certainly alienates the translator’s text from the original. To compensate for the distance created between the original text and the translation, the translator has to invent a rough equivalent in his native language and culture so that the resulting translated text would convey the same point that the original text intended to communicate. ?e effect could be best described as “nativization” of the foreign text.

In this exploration of the relationship between translation and culture, it should become obvious that the translator’s work is not on language alone. It begins with a foray into the culture of the literary work and the language itself of the translator, with the end of establishing a bridge, no matter how tenuous, between the culture the original text implies and the culture of the translated work.

Translation when done by a simple replacement of words may communicate, but it fails to deliver the full weight of the words of the original statement. It may deliver meaning, but the culture behind the words will always be left out.

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Posted in EAPP Articles, Uncategorized

Hallyu in and For Asia

Author: Ju-yong ha
Journal of Publication: Kolum Kritika
Given by: Erikaye Gumabol

Hallyu has persisted long enough to attain the stature of a major influential cultural phenomenon.
Yet the primary locus of exchange appear to be discourses and dialogues produced by Koreans
and Western appreciators. What this state of affairs overrides is the reality that the first area of
impact of contemporary Korean popular culture is the region immediately outside Korea (and
East Asia): the Southeast Asian region. In order to ensure that Koreans and Southeast Asians
attain a condition of mutual understanding, scholarship on hallyu vis-à-vis its Asian audiences
will have to be facilitated and encouraged.

The Korean popular-culture trend now known as hallyu has been around long
enough, and has spread widely enough, so that it has assumed certain characteristics
that typify global long-term trends. A growing number of studies on Korean drama, K-pop music,
and Korean cinema have been conducted in the wake of such pioneering scholars
as Keehyeung Lee, Hyangjin Lee, Kyung Hyun Kim, and Jinhee Choi.

For this reason, the views of the original “foreign” consumers of hallyu are of
more importance than most scholars, even Korean ones, realize at the moment.
This is the reason why a collection of articles on contemporary Korean popular
culture deserves to focus on the responses of the scholars and audiences of the
Southeast Asian region. we may give
ourselves over to recollecting the Korean pop-culture wave via some of its most enduring products: its cinem.

From the early years, Taeyun Yu inspects and interrogates samples that impressed themselves directly on the Western imaginary, via European film festivals as well as the art-film distribution circuit.6 In “The
Matrix of S&M in Korean Cinema: Time, Space, Trauma, Power,” he recapitulates
the cultural memory of the Korean War and the Japanese occupation and relates
these to the country’s own difficult, often violent process of developmental growth,
via Ki-duk Kim’s Haeanseon [The Coast Guard] and Sunwoo Jang’s Ggotip [A Petal].

The two films serve as reminders of how a number of Korean products, while part
of the pop-culture production trend, cannot necessarily be distributed with the
same guarantees of feel-good family entertainment that accompany “typical” hallyu
output. As mentioned earlier, the identification of Southeast Asians with Korean culture plays out differently from their views of the other major cultures of Japan and China. The shape and direction of hallyu ought to take its cue from the other East Asian countries (where its popularity first spread) as well as its final distributive destination, the amorphous West. Yet in a definitive sense, its first true global audience would be Korea’s Asian neighbours, so whatever findings show up
in the larger region will be of import to Korean cultural policy, as much as hallyu
itself has also factored in the decisions of cultural administrations in the rest of
Asia. The larger and longer-term advantage would be the facilitation of dialogues and
exchanges between Korea and its neighbours. This would necessitate the use of
venues, events, and periodical publications that mark themselves as pop-culture

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Posted in EAPP Articles

Assessing the Competitiveness of the Philippine Auto Parts Industry

Author: Rafaelita M. Aldaba
Journal of Publication: Journals
Given by: Cathlyn Gonzaga

The development of the Philippine automotive parts and components sector is
critical to the automotive assembly industry. The availability of competitive parts and
components that are locally manufactured can significantly contribute to boost the
competitiveness of the assembly sector. Given the current state of small and medium
manufacturers, making them internationally competitive and linking them with
regional production networks are major challenges.

Less competitive firms will have to contend with reduced market shares and
eventually bankruptcy. The few remaining competitive ones need to define their
strategies and the market position that they want to pursue. The government has an
important role to play in the firms’ adjustment process. While increasing economic
integration represent market opportunities; penetrating the export market is not easy
and does not come automatically. As the firms search for internal ways and exert
effort to improve their competitiveness, this must be complemented with active
government support.

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Posted in EAPP Articles

The Zobel Nexus

Author: Patrick D. Flores
Journal of Publication: Kritika kultura no.24
Given by: Hadiyah Gamala
Fernando Zobel is an important figure in Philippine art history. His influence is wide and deep, from art making to formation of taste and to the production of discourse on iconography and identity. This essay focuses on his role in generating critical texts on the history of art in the Philippines, initiating a much-needed discussion on the categories of form, the cultural context of style, and the criteria for evaluating the value of objects.
As a collector and connoisseur, Zobel endeavored to significantly set the terms with which the history of colonial and modern art would be written. Such an effort deserves to be revisited and subjected to critique, with the view of tracing the genealogy of the discourse of art history and prospecting new perspectives on the historiography of the colonial and the modern.
Zobel is an exemplary personage in this regard because he was a polytropic agent. He made art, collected it, and historicized it. It finally offers analysis, too, of the political economy underlying this discourse; Zobel belonged to an economically ascendant clan in the country, created a coterie of taste makers, and pursued an “internationalist” ideal in the quest for modernism. Across the different roles that Zobel played may be discerned important aspects of consciousness, or better still, ciphers of the identity-effect: the “colonial,” the “Filipino,” the “modern,” and “class.”

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